PRELIMINARY GROUNDWATER RESOURCE ASSESSMENT OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF DIPLAHAN, ZAMBOANGA SIBUGAY

By Hydrogeology Section

The 2021 1:50:000 Scale Groundwater Resource Availability and Vulnerability Assessment of MGB, RO-IX Geosciences Division commenced on March 22 to 31, 2021, and April 5 to 22, 2021, in the Municipality of Diplahan, Zamboanga Sibugay. This is part of the groundwater resource study of the entire Zamboanga Peninsula for the year 2021, which will cover three (3) municipalities: Diplahan, Buug, and Ipil, Zamboanga Sibugay. The program primarily aims to identify the groundwater availability of the municipality by determining the various water sources whether surface water or groundwater. The data gathered will in turn update (1) the Hydrogeological and Groundwater Availability Map from 1:250,000 scale to 1:50,000 scale; (2) the database on the various water resources in the municipality. Such information can be useful for the management and development of water resources and in the development of land-use planning and appraising of land-use classification and allocation. The program will cover the entire municipality of Diplahan which is composed of twenty-two (22) barangays and will attempt to map out the main water sources of each.

Health and safety measures were strictly followed during the course of the field program to adhere to the “New Normal” in response to the Covid-19 Safety protocols.

The Municipality of Diplahan, with a total land area of 12,746 hectares, is located in the province of Zamboanga Sibugay. It is approximately centered at geographical coordinates 7″45′ 44.6″ North Latitude and 122°58’26.04″   East Longitude. The Municipal Hall building is located at coordinates 7″41 ‘21.6″ North Latitude, and 122° 58’52.2″ East Longitude based on a hand-held Garmin Global Positioning System (GPS) reading. The Municipality of Diplahan is bounded to the north-northeast by the Municipality of Bayog, Zamboanga del Sur, to the west by the Municipality of Siay, to the southwest and southeast by Imelda and Malangas, and to the east by the Municipality of Buug. The commercial/business center and the site of the local government are situated in Barangay Poblacion and are about sixty-two (62) kilometers land distance due east of Ipil Municipality (the site of the provincial government of Zamboanga Sibugay) and is about seventy-two (72) kilometers land distance to the nearest city of Pagadian, Zamboanga del Sur.

Figure 1. Location Map of the Municipality of Diplahan.

WATER RESOURCES

Surface Water

The municipality is not utilizing any surface water for potable  use even though its central to northern part is traversed by the Sibuguey River, a major river system is the province. Surface water is generally appropriated for irrigation of the vast rice field in the central part of the municipality. Irrigation infrastructures can be found on the central floodplain of the river and irrigation canals abound in the Sibuguey Valley. 

Photo 1. Muyo River, located on the upstream section of Sibuguey River where the NIA (National Irrigration Agency) dam is located.

Groundwater

Groundwater occurrence in the municipality is manifested by the presence of various wells and springs that are widely distributed throughout the area. Deep wells are generally managed by the LGU but not all are for household or potable use. Potable water in the municipality particularly in the municipal center (Brgy. Poblacion) is generally provided by private water refilling stations with their own deep wells. Remote barangays rely heavily on shallow wells and spring sources. Some of these spring sources are even coming from adjacent municipality.

Groundwater resources extracted through deep wells are considered as the semi-confined groundwater while those in open dug wells or shallow wells are the unconfined groundwater that is vulnerable to contamination coming from the surface.

GROUNDWATER CONDITIONS

Water Point Inventory

The water sources inventory entails visiting all available groundwater wells of all types. Deep wells (with depth more than 25 meters below ground surface) are usually maintained by water private distribution entities, such as the local water districts, subdivision developers, and industrial and commercial establishments. Shallow wells (with depth less than 25 meters below ground surface) are normally constructed by individual households or schools for their domestic consumption. Other possible sources of well information include municipal waterworks, National Irrigation Administration (NIA), the Local Water Utilities Administration (LWUA), agricultural enterprises (e.g. poultries, piggeries, etc).

The parameters covered in this survey include the location (coordinates), the elevation of water sources and discharge rates, physical characteristics of the lithology of the area, and water quality test. Both location and elevation are determined using a handheld GPS instrument. The crucial part is determining the location of the wells using a Global Positioning System (GPS), to guide in locating and reflecting water information on a working map. Other relevant information includes ground elevation of the location of wells, depth to groundwater which is used to establish groundwater contour map, discharge (volume of water extractable/or flowing out per unit of time), water current use/utilization, and duration of its existence (in terms of years). The groundwater level is obtained from existing available data or obtained by direct measurement using water level meter, field data are used for well inventory data entry. All geospatial point data are plotted in ArcGIS software to generate the hydrogeological map. The discharge rates are determined using the volumetric method whenever possible.

A total of seventy-seven (77) groundwater sources were inventoried during the program while twenty (20) water sources and related water infrastructures were surveyed in the previous province-wide program. Shallow and dug wells accounted 45% of the total water sources while 37% are spring sources. Majority of the barangays have shallow wells albeit mostly utilized for domestic purposes. In the barangays of Pilar and Paradise, only shallow wells have been surveyed as the spring sources come from adjacent barangays. These two barangays are generally situated on the floodplain of Sibuguey River.  

At least four barangays, Tuno, Tinuntongan, Songcuya, and Goling rely on spring as major water source. Deep wells are mostly located in Barangay Poblacion with a total of eight (8) wells were most of the built-up zone is located including the municipal center. Deep wells account for 18% of the total inventoried water sources.

The average depth of the shallow and dug wells is 8.2 m and it ranges from 1.2m to 18.3m. The static water level (SWL) has an average depth of 4.05m with four wells having SWL above 10m. Four shallow wells attained a well depth of 18m, these are DPL-21, DPL-41, DPL-43, and DPL-54. Among the four, DPL-54 has the lowest SWL at 4.03m below the ground.

The surveyed deep wells show an average depth of 33.6m and the average static water level from eight (8) deep wells is at 16.6m. Only eight (8) of the deep wells have static water level measurement.

Water point inventory also collects discharge rate data of springs. This groundwater discharge represents the natural withdrawal of groundwater from the underlying natural reservoir. Based on records obtained from spring sources and intake boxes, discharge rates vary from a very weak 0.04 liters per second (lps) to a relatively strong 0.65 lps.  Mechanical discharge rate such as pumping rate of deep wells and in distribution tanks were excluded as these vary greatly compared to the natural discharge measurement.

Figure 2. Groundwater Availability Map of the Municipality of Diplahan, Zamboanga Sibugay.

Water Quality

In-Situ Test Results

The summary of results presented here discusses the physical properties of water obtained from the handheld instrument utilized during the program. The results for water pH and total dissolved solids (TDS) are compared with the Department of Health (DOH) – Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water (PNSWD) under Administrative Order (A.O.) No. 10 series of 2017. Salinity and conductivity values were compared to standards published in selected literature. 

Water pH

Figure 3. Variation plot of pH in the survyed water sources.

A pH is a measure of hydrogen ion activity, which means that it tells us how acidic or basic the water is. pH is not a pollutant, but it is a chemical master variable (https://www.worldbank.org/). Potential of hydrogen (pH) is a measure of the water’s acidity or basicity. It goes from zero to fourteen, with seven being neutral. pH of less than 7 indicate acidity, whereas a pH of greater than 7 indicates a base. The pH determines the solubility of substances, like chemical constituents such as nutrients and heavy metals, in the water.

The permissible pH value of drinking water based on the National Standard for Drinking Water is at 6.5 to 8.5 pH. Based on the variation plot of the pH values, most samples are within the confines of the permissible standard of drinking water. However, there are sources for commercial water distribution and household use that returned a pH below the lower limit for drinking water. The highest pH was recorded at 7.7 (DPL-21) and the lowest at 5.1 (DPL-68) which can be considered as slightly acidic.

A total of sixteen (16) sampling sites returned a pH of <6.5 which are below the lower limit of the acceptable value.  Some deep wells returned above 6 pH (DPL-093, Brgy. Butong and DPL-096, Brgy. Poblacion) but still below the allowable pH for drinking water. These values should be monitored particularly for the major water sources to fully assess the pH of the water supply.  A shallow/deep well in Brgy. Lindang (DPL-68) has the lowest pH of 5.1 and is currently utilized for household/potable use.

A contour map of the pH values is shown in Figure 04. The contour map shows that the southern floodplain water sources returned values outside the lower limit of pH for drinking water. Barangays on the vast floodplain of Sibuguey River generally have shallow and dug wells located near the main channel of the river and noted to have either rusty smell and murky appearance. Patchy distribution of slightly acidic water can also be noted on the northern section of the municipality. At the southernmost part, an extension of pH below 6.5 is noted. These are the water sources coming from deep wells and shallow wells that are utilized either for commercial distribution and potable use. 

Figure 4. Contour map of water pH in the Municipality of Diplahan.

Total Dissolve Solids (TDS)

Figure 5. Variation plot of Total Dissolve Solids (TDS) of the surveyed water sources.

The Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) concentration is the sum of the cations and anions in the water (Oram, B., https://www.water-research.net). The test provides a qualitative measure on the quantity of dissolved ions but does not tell the nature or ion relationships (Oram, B.; https://www.water-research.net). Based on the national standards for drinking water in the Philippines, the maximum allowable TDS is at 600 ppm. TDS results from the surveyed water sources vary from a very low 16 ppm to 384 ppm (Table 01). Based on the nature of groundwater classification after Freeze and Cheery, 1979, these results can be classified under freshwater with TDS values <1000 (Table 01). The highest TDS value is 384 ppm from a shallow well in Brgy. Guinoman used for domestic purpose.

A contour map of the TDS values is shown in Figure 06. All samples returned significantly below the limit of TDS for drinking water. The southern half of the municipality has TDS of about 150 ppm while the northern section appears to have an area with TDS above 150 ppm. Single high values are also noted throughout the municipality with the highest at 384 ppm from DPL-31 in Brgy. Guinoman. This shallow well is for domestic use and is hosted in an alluvium located on the northernmost barangay of the municipality. Water was also noted to be murky.

Figure 6. Contour map of TDS in the Municipality of Diplahan.

Table 1. Groundwater classification based on TDS (Freeze and Cheery, 1979)

Salinity

Figure 7. Variation plot of salinity in the water sources.

The salinity standard reported here follows the general freshwater salinity value which is expressed in parts per thousand (ppt).  Freshwater has a salinity of 0.5 ppt or less (https://sfyl.ifas.ufl.edu/). Salinity is a measure of dissolved salts in water which is affected by changes in weather patterns (e.g., droughts or storms) or increased in urban runoff and sewer discharge (https://sfyl.ifas.ufl.edu/). As the concentration of dissolved salts in water increases, its quality tends to decrease.

Salinity values were calculated based on the measured temperature and conductivity of the water sample. An excel template format for conversion developed by James Douglas is used here. It is based on the conversion factors published in the 1983 Technical Paper from UNESCO- “Algorithms for computation of fundamental properties of seawater” (http://jamesgdouglass.blogspot.com/). The reference conductivity is 42,900 micro siemens per cm2.  HANNA instrument measures conductivity as milli-siemens thus the values are converted into micro siemens before calculating the salinity. Calculated salinity is measured in PSU (denoting practical salinity unit), a unit practically related to the seawater properties. PSU is equivalent to parts per thousand (ppt).

The salinity values for the surveyed sources range from 0.014 to 0.25 ppt. The peak value of 0.25 ppt is also from DPL-31 while the spring from Brgy. Tuno (DPL-61) register the lowest salinity. A large patch of up to 0.1 ppt salinity is concentrated at the mid-central part of the municipality with single high values of greater than 0.1 ppt. These values generally indicate that the water sources are still within the category of freshwater and the elevated values may be attributed to possibly surface contamination either sources not properly cleaned through time specially for dug or shallow wells.

Figure 8. Contour map of the salinity values.

Conductivity

Figure 9. Variation plot of the conductivity values of the surveyed water sources.

Conductivity is a measure of water’s capability to pass electrical flow and this is directly related to the concentration of ions in the water. These conductive ions come from dissolved salts and inorganic materials such as alkalis, chlorides, sulfides, and carbonate compounds (https://www.fondriest.com/environmental-measurements/parameters/water-quality).

Conductivity and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) can be used for assessing the quality of water for domestic use and irrigation purposes as categorized by Richards (1954) in Agricultural Handbook 60 of USDA. With this classification, the values for conductivity of the surveyed water sources are within the low-moderate saline water type and safe or suitable for irrigation purpose. This is vital in the municipality as the majority of the area is an agricultural and arable land.

Based on the contour map for conductivity, lower than 250 microSiemens dominate the area while single highs or gretaer than 250 microSiemens is distributed throughout the municipality. The highest conductivity also coincides with the highest TDS as exhbited by the yellowish patch on the northern extent.

Table 2. Suitability of Groundwater based on Conductivity and Total Dissolved Solids
Figure 10. Conductivity values contour map.

GROUNDWATER ISSUES

Seasonal problem of adequate water supply is perhaps the predominating issue in areas or barangays that rely heavily on spring sources as a major water source. This is generally based on the anecdotal accounts from barangay officials during the course of the field program. Another notable issue is access to clean water source particularly in the barangays situated within the vast floodplain and along the riverbank of Sibuguey River. Barangays experiencing rusty smell and murky water from shallow wells are Pilar, Sampoli A, Sampoli B, parts of Ditay, Paradise, parts of Guinoman, Lindang, Songcuya and Lobing.

RECOMMENDATIONS

  • An issue regarding the lack of water source can be address by additional water-related infrastructure projects. Boring of new deep wells and finding additional source such as springs. Additional distribution system and rehabilitation and maintenance of water systems. All these imply budgetary concerns related to water program projects.
  • It would be good if water quality is monitored not just in the populated barangays but also the sources in distant barangays.
  • Filtering system can address the murky and rusty smell of some shallow wells.
  • The vast flat-lying terrain at the central portion of the municipality is susceptible to water contamination particularly the shallow groundwater. Water sources close or within the area should be monitored with regards to pollution.

Summary of Data Gathered Per Barangay

BarangayHydrogeological Rock UnitsMajor Groundwater Source
Natan  Barangay Natan is in the northwestern portion of the Municipality of Diplahan. It has six puroks, Puroks 1, 2, 3, 4, Tuburan, and Sikatuna,  bound in the north and southeast by Barangays Ditay and Sampoli-B, respectively. The barangay has a rugged and hilly western and eastern terrain that delimit the northwestern extent of the Sibuguey Valley in its central part.   The volcanic sequence of the Middle Miocene to Pleistocene Zamboanga Volcanic Complex mainly underlies its hilly portions, whereas recent unconsolidated alluvial sediments cover its flat central part (Figure 1).   Groundwater flow in the barangay is mainly permitted by the interconnected fractures in volcaniclastic rocks and by the primary pores or particle spaces between the loose sediments.  Barangay Natan Is entirely within the Sibuguey River Basin. It has three developed operational main water sources that supply domestic-use water to four of its six puroks. Two of these sources are springs in Purok Sikatuna. These springs were developed into a barangay-managed Level 3 water distribution system that supplies water to consumers in Puroks 1 and 2, and some households in Purok 3. This system is entirely gravity-driven from the springs’ intake boxes, through the main water line, to a reservoir at the barangay center in Purok 2, and directly to the residents’ houses. The water from these sources is clear and without smell, however, the springs’ discharge reduces during the dry season.   The other operational water source of the barangay is a drilled shallow well in Purok 1 which supplies non-potable water to residents in Purok Tuburan and some houses in Purok 1. This well was developed in 2016 and is sixty feet or eighteen meters deep with a static water level at twenty feet from the ground surface. Water from this well is extracted by a submersible pump to an elevated concrete storage tank in Purok Tuburan.   Another well was also developed by the barangay in Purok 4. This well is meant to supply for households in the purok, however, it is not yet operational due to the lack of a transformer for the submersible pump. At present, its residents rely on two common Level 1 springs within the purok for domestic and potable water.
Sampoli-ABarangay Sampoli-A is within a floodplain in the northern-central part of the Sibuguey Valley. It has seven puroks, Pruoks Aguinaldo, Aquino, Bonifacio, Mabini, Magsaysay, Rizal, and Roxas, and is traversed by the Sibuguey River in the west.  Barangays Balangao, Gaulan, Paradise, and Sampoli-B bound it in the northeast, southeast, southwest, and west, respectively.   Quaternary or recent deposits of unconsolidated alluvium, mostly composed of sand and clay, underlie its entirely flat, low-lying terrain.   The groundwater in the barangay is unconfined and mainly flows through the pores spaces in between loose alluvial sediments.  Barangay Sampoli-A, like most of the municipality’s barangays, is entirely within the Sibuguey River Basin. It has a spring in Barangay Balangao, which supplies water to most of its puroks, except Rizal.  This water source was developed into a barangay-managed, gravity-driven Level 3 water distribution system that directly supplies water to consumers’ households in Puroks Bonifacio, Aguinaldo, Roxas, Magsaysay, Mabini, and Aquino. The barangay’s water distribution system has a spring intake box, main water line, two operational elevated storage tanks, one non-functional elevated storage tank due to lack of hose, and metered distribution lines.   Residents in Purok Rizal still get water within the barangay through other consumers in nearby puroks.   The water from the barangay’s spring source is not mainly utilized for drinking as residents prefer purified water.   Wells are also minimal in the barangay due to the poor quality of water they intercept, even at depth of about forty meters. One inventoried drilled well in Purok Mabini with a depth of forty-eight meters and a static water level of four meters yielded slightly murky water with rusty odor.  
Sampoli-BBarangay Sampoli-B is in the northwestern part of the Sibuguey Valley. It has seven puroks, Puroks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, and traversed in the east by the Sibuguey River. Barangay Natan and Ditay, Balangao, Sampoli-A, and Paradise bound it in the northwest, northeast, east, and south, respectively.   The Quaternary deposits of unconsolidated alluvial sediments mainly underlie the barangay, except for the hilly parts towards the north that are underlain by the volcanic sequence of the Middle Miocene to Pleistocene Zamboanga Volcanic Complex.   The barangay’s groundwater mainly flows through pore spaces between loose alluvial sediments as well as through the regolith and adequate interconnected fractures of the volcanic sequence.  Barangay Sampoli-B is entirely within the Sibuguey River Basin. The barangay doesn’t have a main water source yet. However, a shallow well in Purok 6 dug in 2020 will be developed into a Level 3 water distribution system that would supply water to all of the barangay’s seven puroks. This well is only 7.6 meters deep, with a static water level of one and a half meters below the ground surface. A submersible pump will extract water from the well to three elevated steel tanks where gravity would convey it to consumers’ households.   At present, the barangay’s residents mainly rely on individual, privately owned wells and springs for potable and non-drinking water. One eighteen-year-old spring in Purok 5 supplies potable water for the purok’s residents. This spring yields clear, odorless water at a discharge rate of 0.3 liters per second and is proposed for further development as it doesn’t dry up during prolonged dry seasons.  
GuinomanBarangay Guinoman is the northernmost barangay of the municipality. It has fourteen puroks, Puroks Banda, Bombell, Dancing Lady, Everlasting, Golden Shower, Gumamela, Morning Glory, Orchids, Rose, Sampaguita, San Francisco, Santan, Sunflower, and Waling-Waling, and bound in the southwest and southeast by Barangays Ditay and Balangao. The southern portion of the barangay occupies the flat northeastern part of the Sibuguey Valley and is underlain by  Quaternary deposits of unconsolidated alluvial sediments, whereas its northern and eastern parts have a rugged and mountainous terrain underlain by the volcanic-pyroclastic flow sequence of the Middle Miocene to Pleistocene Zamboanga Volcanic Complex.   The barangay’s groundwater mainly flows through pore spaces between loose alluvial sediments as well as through the regolith and adequate interconnected fractures of the volcanic sequence.  Barangay Guinoman is also within the Sibuguey River Basin. It has two springs in the mountainous portion of Purok Everlasting that supplies water to the barangay-managed Level 3 water distribution system serving Puroks Gumamela, Sunflower, Waling-Waling, Rose, and Santan. The water in these spring sources is gravity-driven and stored in two small storage tanks.   Due to the limited supply of water, privately-owned wells are highly common in the barangay, and purified water is used for drinking.
DitayBarangay Ditay is in the northwestern part of the municipality. It has nine puroks, Puroks Quezon, Bonifacio, Mabini, Rizal, Riverside, Magsaysay, Hillside, Tinago, and Bagong Silang, and Barangays Guinoman, Balangao, Sampoli-B, and Natan bound it in the north, east, southeast, and south, respectively.   The barangay generally has a rugged, mountainous western part underlain by the volcanic-pyroclastic flow sequence of the Middle Miocene to Pleistocene Zamboanga Volcanic Complex, and a flat low-lying western portion underlain by Quaternary deposits of unconsolidated alluvial sediments.   The barangay’s groundwater mainly flows through pore spaces between loose alluvial sediments as well as through the regolith and adequate interconnected fractures of the volcanic sequence.  Barangay Ditay is also entirely within the Sibuguey River Basin. Like Barangay Guinoman, Ditay has no functional water distribution system as it was damaged. Because of the lack of a readily available water supply from the barangay, residents mainly rely on privately-owned wells and springs for potable and non-drinking water.   One free-flowing Level 1 spring in Purok Quezon serves as the main potable water source of the barangay. It yields clear, odorless water at a discharge rate of 0.24 liters per second. This spring was installed with an intake box and a water line to a common fetching site along the barangay road.
BalangaoBarangay Balangao is in the northeastern part of the municipality. It has eight puroks, Puroks 1, 2, 3, 4-A, 4-B, 5, 6, and 7, and traversed by the Sibuguey River in the west. Barangays Guinoman, Ditay, and Sampoli-A bound it in the north, west, and southwest, respectively.   The barangay occupies the northern-central part of the Sibuguey Valley towards the south. This portion of the barangay is flat and low-lying and underlain by Quaternary deposit of unconsolidated alluvial sediments. On the other hand, its northern part has rugged, mountainous terrain underlain by the volcanic-pyroclastic flow sequence of the Middle Miocene to Pleistocene Zamboanga Volcanic Complex.   The barangay’s groundwater mainly flows through pore spaces between loose alluvial sediments as well as through the regolith and adequate interconnected fractures of the volcanic sequence.  Barangay Balangao is also entirely within the Sibuguey River Basin. It has multiple springs that supply potable water to all of its puroks through Level 2 water distribution systems.   Two springs in Purok 6 are used to supply water to a gravity-driven Level 2  water distribution system that serves Puroks 1 and 2. This system has twelve tap stands and is already about sixty years old. The water yielded from this system has lessened over time due to damages and illegal taps.   The barangay also has six springs in Purok 4-B utilized to supply water to another gravity-driven Level 2 water distribution system that serves Puroks 3, 4-A, 4-B, 5, and 7.   Aside from these sources, residents in Purok 6 also utilize other smaller springs in the purok to supply their improvised water system.   A spring in Purok 6 previously used as a main water source of the barangay yields clear, odorless water at a discharge rate of 0.22 liters per second.  
ParadiseBarangay Paradise is on the western side of the municipality. It has seven puroks, Puroks Roxas, Magsaysay, Aquino, Rizal, Bonifacio, Quezon, and Marcos, and traversed by the Sibuguey River in the east. Barangays Sampoli-B, Gaulan, and Pilar bound it in the north, east, and south, respectively.   The barangay lies within the northern-central part of the Sibuguey Valley and has a flat, low-lying floodplain terrain underlain by Quaternary deposits of unconsolidated alluvial sediments.   The groundwater in the barangay flows through particle spaces of loose alluvial sediments and is usually intercepted at depths over ten meters from the ground surface.  This shallow groundwater table occupies an open aquifer and is prone to ground surface pollution.  Barangay Paradise is entirely within the floodplain of the Sibuguey River Basin. It has a spring in Barangay Gaulan that supplies potable water to all residents in Puroks Magsaysay, Aquino, Rizal, Bonifacio, and Quezon, and most of Puroks Roxas and Marcos. This spring also serves some residents in Barangay Pilar and Gaulan.   The barangay utilizes this spring for its gravity-driven Level 2 water distribution system. The spring does not dry up during prolonged dry seasons. However, its discharge significantly weakens and prompts a more limited scheduled water distribution in the barangay. Because of this, residents rely on privately-owned electrically or manually-pumped wells for non-drinking water. Well depths go down to about twenty meters and the groundwater is typically intercepted fifteen meters below the ground surface. Water extracted from these wells is murky and has a rusty odor.
LuopBarangay Luop is in the western part of the municipality. It has six puroks, Purok 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, and bound in the northeast and southeast by Barangay Pilar and Lindang.   The barangay occupies the southwestern part of the Sibuguey Valley and generally has a flat, low-lying topography underlain by Quaternary deposits of alluvial sediments. It also has a smaller hilly area to the west underlain by the volcanic sequence of the Middle Miocene to Pleistocene Zamboanga Volcanic Complex.   The barangay’s groundwater mainly flows through pore spaces between loose alluvial sediments as well as through the regolith and adequate interconnected fractures of the volcanic sequence.  Barangay Luop is entirely within the Sibuguey River Basin. It has a spring in Purok 6 that serves as its main water source and supplies potable water to all of its puroks through a gravity-driven Level 3 water distribution system. This water system has a spring intake box that initially captures the water. From there, gravity conveys the water through the main water line to three storage tanks in the barangay center and directly to consumers’ households.   The spring does not dry up during prolonged dry seasons, but its discharge decreases. It is in the mid-slope of a steep-sloping hillside and yields clear odorless water. The barangay’s residents mainly rely on this water source, and wells are no longer commonly used.
PilarBarangay Pilar is in the western part of the municipality. It has seven Puroks, Purok 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, and traversed by the Sibuguey River in the east-southeast. Barangays Paradise, Tuno, Manangon, Lindang, and Luop bound it in the north, northeast, southeast, south, and southwest, respectively.   The barangay lies within the central part of the Sibuguey Valley and has a flat, low-lying floodplain terrain underlain by Quaternary deposits of unconsolidated alluvial sediments.   The groundwater in the barangay flows through particle spaces of loose sediments and is usually intercepted at depths just over one meter from the ground surface.  This shallow groundwater table occupies an open aquifer and is prone to ground surface pollution.  Barangay Pilar is also entirely within the Sibuguey River Basin. It has a spring in Purok 6 of Barangay Gaulan that supplies potable water to its residents in Puroks 3, 4, 5, and 6 through Level 3 and 2 water distribution systems.   The system has a spring intake box that initially captures the water. From there, gravity conveys the water through the main water line and distribution lines directly to consumers’ households as the system doesn’t have a storage tank. Aside from the lack of storage which limits the supply of water in the barangay, the spring was also affected by a landslide that weakened its discharge. Because of the insufficient water supply from the barangay’s water system, residents commonly have privately owned wells for non-drinking water. These wells are usually five to twenty meters deep and intercept the groundwater at one to five meters from the ground surface.  
Sta. CruzBarangay Sta. Cruz is in the southeastern part of the municipality. It has five puroks, Puroks, Ilisan, Magsaysay, Rizal, Lapu-Lapu, and Bagong Silang and Barangays Tinongtongan, Kauswagan, and Botong bound it in the north, southwest, and south, respectively.   The barangay generally has a hilly terrain underlain by the volcanic sequence of the Middle Miocene to Pleistocene Zamboanga Volcanic Complex.   Since the volcanic sequence of the Zamboanga Volcanic Complex underlies the barangay, its groundwater mainly flows through adequate interconnected fractures, as well as the regolith of the rock unit.Barangay Sta Cruz is within two river basins. Its western part occupies the Sibuguey River Basin and its eastern side the Lipacan River Basin. The barangay has a spring in Purok Bagong Silang that supplies water to all of its puroks through a pumped Level 3 water distribution system.   This system has a spring intake box that initially captures the water. From there, a two horsepower submersible pump conveys it through the main water line to two storage tanks in the barangay center and consumers’ households. This spring is in a steep-sloping hillside, along a creek, and was developed in 2017 as a DILG BUB Project.   The barangay’s residents also utilize privately owned wells as sources of non-drinking water. These wells have depths that go down fifty meters and intercept the groundwater at two meters below the ground surface.  
GaulanBarangay Gaulan is in the eastern part of the municipality. It has seven puroks, Purok 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. The Muyo and Siuguey River traverse it in the north, and Barangays Sampoli-A, Paradise, and Tuno bound it in the northwest, west, and south, respectively.   The barangay mainly has a flat, low-lying floodplain terrain, with only a mi hilly portion in the east and southeast. The Quaternary deposits of unconsolidated alluvial sediments underlie the former, and the volcanic sequence of the Middle Miocene to Pleistocene Zamboanga Volcanic Complex underlies the latter.   The barangay’s groundwater mainly flows through pore spaces between loose alluvial sediments as well as through the regolith and adequate interconnected fractures of the volcanic sequence.  Barangay Gaulan is within the southwestern part of the Sibuguey River Basin. It has two springs in Purok 6 that supply potable water to residents in Puroks 1, 4, and 7 through a Level 3 water distribution system and four springs in each of its four other puroks that supply water to residents through Level 2 water distribution systems.   The springs in Purok 6 are in a landslide-prone steep-sloping hillside along the Muyo River. This spring does not dry up during prolonged dry seasons though its discharge decreases. An intake box is installed on each spring to initially capture the water. From there, gravity conveys the water through the main water line to a reservoir in the barangay center and distribution lines directly to consumers’ households.   Because of the barangay’s limited water supply, residents commonly use privately-owned wells with electric and manual hand pumps. Other springs are also privately developed by lot owners to supply potable and non-drinking water to the barangay’s residents.  
TunoBarangay Tuno is in the eastern part of the municipality. It has three puroks, Purok 1, 2, and 3, and the Sibuguey River traverses it in the west. Barangays Gaulan, Pilar, Manangon, and Goling bound it in the north, west, south, and southeast, respectively. The barangay mainly has a hilly terrain in its central and eastern portions and flat, low-lying areas in the west and between hills in the east.   The volcanic sequence of the Middle Miocene to Pleistocene Zamboanga Volcanic Complex mainly underlies the hilly areas of the barangay, and the Quaternary deposits of loose alluvial sediments cover its flat, floodplain portions.   The barangay’s groundwater mainly flows through pore spaces between loose alluvial sediments as well as through the regolith and adequate interconnected fractures of the volcanic sequence.  Barangay Tuno is in the southwestern part of the Sibuguey River Basin. The barangay has two springs in Barangay Guitom in the Municipality of Buug and a spring in Purok 3 that supplies water to all of the barangay’s puroks through Level 3 water distribution systems. Each spring has an intake box, main water line, storage tank, and distribution lines direct to consumers’ households.   The distribution systems that source water from the Guinoman springs are both gravity-driven, whereas the one for Purok 3 has a submersible pump that extracts water from the spring intake box.   All of the springs that supply water to the barangay do not dry up during prolonged dry seasons. However, their discharge has decreased significantly over time. Because of the insufficient water supply, the barangay’s residents commonly have privately-owned and developed wells and springs.
ManangonBarangay Manangon is in the eastern part of the municipality. It has three puroks, Purok 1, 2, and 3, and traversed in the west by the Sibuguey River. Barangays Tuno, Goling, Lindang, and Pilar bound it in the north, east, south, and west, respectively.   The barangay has a flat, low-lying floodplain area in the west and a hilly portion in the east. Quaternary unconsolidated alluvial sediment deposits underlie the former and the volcanic sequence of the Middle Miocene to Pleistocene Zamboanga Volcanic Complex the latter.   The groundwater in the barangay mainly flows through pore spaces between loose alluvial sediments as well as through the regolith and adequate interconnected fractures of the volcanic sequence.  Barangay Manangon is in the southwestern part of the Sibuguey River Basin. There are no developed water sources in the barangay that supply water to its residents, except for the new, not yet operational well in Purok 3.   This well was drilled in 2020, with a twenty-nine-meter (29m) well-depth and static water level of twenty-seven and a half meters (27.5m) from the ground surface. It was installed with a one horsepower submersible pump to extract the water to a storage tank. According to the barangay official assigned on the well-maintenance, the water source dries up after pumping for ten minutes. This shows the well may not yield enough water to supply the barangay.   The barangay’s residents rely on individual wells and springs for non-potable water and use purified water for drinking due to the lack of readily available water supply.  
LindangBarangay Lindang is in the western portion of the municipality. It has seven puroks, Purok 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, and traversed in the northwest by the Sibuguey River. Barangays Pilar, Manangon, Goling, Tinongtongan, Soncuya, and Luop bound it in the north, northeast, east, southeast, south, and northwest, respectively.   The barangay has a flat, low-lying floodplain area in the west and a hilly portion in the east. Quaternary unconsolidated alluvial sediment deposits underlie the former and the volcanic sequence of the Middle Miocene to Pleistocene Zamboanga Volcanic Complex the latter.   The groundwater in the barangay mainly flows through pore spaces between loose alluvial sediments as well as through the regolith and adequate interconnected fractures of the volcanic sequence.  Barangay Lindang occupies the southwestern part of the Sibuguey River Basin. It has two springs in Purok 6 and 7, mainly used to supply potable water to all of the barangay’s puroks through gravity-driven Level 2 water distribution systems.   Both springs have intake boxes, main water lines, storage tanks, and common tap stands. The spring in Purok 6 supplies potable water to residents in Puroks 5 and 6, and the spring in Purok 7 serves all of the barangay’s puroks.   These springs yield clear and odorless water, and they don’t dry up during prolonged dry seasons, though their discharge significantly decreases. The spring in Purok 7 has a discharge rate of 0.17 liters per second. Thus, water from these springs is only used for drinking, and residents use shallow wells and other smaller springs for non-potable water.
LobingBarangay Lobing is in the southwestern portion of the municipality. It has three puroks, Purok 1, 2, and 3, and traversed by the Sibuguey River in the west. Barangays Soncuya, Mejo, and Poblacion bound it in the north, northeast, and southeast.   The barangay occupies the southern part of the Sibuguey Valley and mainly has a flat, low-lying terrain underlain by loose Quaternary alluvial sediments. It also has a smaller hilly area in the southeast underlain by the sedimentary package of the Late Miocene to Pliocene Lumbog Formation composed of interbedded sandstone, shale, and mudstone, with coal seams and loose fluvial conglomerate.   The groundwater in the barangay mainly flows through the pore spaces of loose sediments as well as through the primary pores, adequate interconnected fractures, and regolith zones of the sedimentary package.  Barangay Lobing is entirely within the southwestern part of the Sibuguey River Basin. It has two springs in Purok 3 that supply potable water to all of the barangay’s puroks through gravity-driven Level 2 water distribution systems.   One of the springs in Purok 3 serves Puroks 1 and 2, the puroks of the barangay in the floodplain of the Sibuguey River, and residents in the hilly portion of Purok 3 utilize the other spring. Aside from these water sources, residents rely on shallow wells and other smaller springs.    Households in Purok 1 and 2 usually have shallow wells for non-drinking water. These wells are typically five meters deep and intercept the groundwater at less than half a meter to a little over a meter from the ground surface. Electric pumps are installed in the wells to easily extract water, which is commonly clear and odorless. These wells are essential for the barangay’s residents and are constantly maintained and cleaned as they are regularly affected by flooding from the Sibuguey River.
SoncuyaBarangay Soncuya is in the southwestern part of the municipality. It has seven puroks, Purok Rose, San Francisco, Bougainvilla, Orchids, Sampaguita I, Sampaguita II, and Rosal. The Sibuguey River traverse it in the west and Barangays Lindang, Tinongtongan, and Lobing bound it in the north, east and south.   The barangay has a flat, low-lying floodplain area in the west and a hilly portion in the northeast. Loose Quaternary alluvial sediment deposits underlie the former and the volcanic sequence of the Middle Miocene to Pleistocene Zamboanga Volcanic Complex the latter.   The groundwater in the barangay mainly flows through pore spaces between loose alluvial sediments as well as through the regolith and adequate interconnected fractures of the volcanic sequence.  Soncuya is another barangay in the southwestern part of the Sibuguey River Basin. It has two springs in Purok Rose, a spring in Purok Orchids, and another in Purok Bougainvilla that currently supply potable water to the barangay’s residents through a gravity-driven Level 2 water distribution system with common tap stands in Puroks San Francisco and Rose. The barangay also has a deep well in Purok Orchids that will be pumped to supply potable water to the barangay’s residents through a Level 3 water distribution system.   The barangay’s Level 2 water distribution system previously had tap stands in all of its puroks. However, water lines were damaged during road constructions and were no longer repaired.   A deep well was drilled in Purok Orchids in 2020 to improve the water supply in the barangay. This well is thirty and a half meters (30.5m) deep and was able to intercept the groundwater at twenty-four meters (24m) from the ground surface.  It was installed with a submersible pump that extracts water to a six thousand liter (6000li) steel tank where the water is stored before it is distributed to consumers’ households. This Level 3 water distribution system is not yet operational due to the lack of distribution water lines.
GolingBarangay Goling is in the eastern part of the municipality and has five puroks, Purok 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. Barangays Tuno, Manangon, Lindang, and Tinongtongan bound it in the north, northwest, southwest, and south.   It has a flat, low-lying area in the west that occupies the eastern side of the Sibuguey Valley and a hilly portion in the east. The former is underlain by loose Quaternary alluvial sediments, and the latter by the volcanic sequence of the Middle Miocene to Pleistocene Zamboanga Volcanic Complex.   The groundwater in the barangay mainly flows through pore spaces between loose alluvial sediments as well as through the regolith and adequate interconnected fractures of the volcanic sequence.  Barangay Goling is entirely within the southwestern part of the Sibuguey River Basin. It has a Spring in Barangay Del Monte in the Municipality of Buug that supply potable water to its Puroks 1, 2, 3, and 5 through a gravity-driven Level 3 water distribution system. The barangay also has a spring in Purok 4 that’s supposed to supply potable water to residents in the purok through another Level 3 water distribution system. However, the locations of most of the purok’s households are not ideal for gravity-driven distribution, and the spring has a weak discharge so only four households are connected to the system. Because of this, residents in Purok 4 rely on smaller undeveloped springs for potable and non-drinking water.
TinongtonganBarangay Tinongtongan is in the southeastern part of the municipality and has five puroks, Purok Riverside, Matinabangon, Bagong Silang, Gunsai, and Hillside. Barangay Goling, Sta. Cruz, Mejo, Soncuya, and Lindang bound it in the north, east, south, west, and northwest, respectively.   It has a flat, low-lying central terrain that occupies the southeastern portion of the Sibugauey Valley and hilly areas in the east and west. These terrains are underlain by loose Quaternary alluvial sediments and Middle Miocene to Pleistocene volcanic sequence of the Zamboanga Volcanic Complex.   The groundwater in the barangay mainly flows through pore spaces between loose alluvial sediments as well as through the regolith and adequate interconnected fractures of the volcanic sequence.  Barangay Tinongtongan is also within the southwestern part of the Sibuguey River Basin. It has two springs in Barangay Sta. Cruz and another in Purok Hillside that supply water to most of the barangay’s residents.   One of the springs in Purok Bagong Silang, Sta. Cruz and the spring in Purok Hillside have intake boxes, main water lines, storage tanks, and distribution lines, whereas the other spring in Sta. Cruz, also known as the Jaictin Spring, has distribution lines directly connected to the spring intake box.   The barangay’s main water sources are used to supply water to gravity-driven Level 3 water distribution systems that serve its puroks. The Bagong Silang spring provides potable water to residents in Purok Riverside. The Jaictin spring supplies potable water to residents in Puroks Gunsai, Riverside, Bagong Silang, and some households in Matinabangon, and the Hillside spring to its purok’s residents.   Some residents in Purok Matinabangaon that don’t have water connections are still able to access the barangay’s water supply through other households that have connections.
MejoBarangay Mejo is in the southern part of the municipality. It has three puroks, Purok 1, 2, and 3, and Barangay Tinongtongan, Kauswagan, Poblacion, and Lobing bound it in the north, east, southeast, and west.   The barangay has a flat, low-lying portion in the west underlain by unconsolidated Quaternary alluvial sediments and hilly terrain in the east underlain by the volcanic sequence of the Middle Miocene to Pleistocene Zamboanga Volcanic Complex.   The groundwater in the barangay mainly flows through pore spaces between loose alluvial sediments as well as through the regolith and adequate interconnected fractures of the volcanic sequence.  Barangay Mejo is another barangay of the municipality entirely within the Sibuguey River Basin. It has a spring in Barangay Sta. Cruz that supplies potable water to Puroks 1 and 2 and a spring in Purok 2 that supplies non-potable water to the same puroks. Both of the springs were developed into Level 3 distribution systems.   The Sta. Cruz spring is in the mid-slope of a steep-sloping hillside. It was installed with an intake box that initially captures the water. From there gravity conveys it through the main water line to a reservoir and through metered distribution lines directly to consumers’ households. This Level 3 water distribution system also has another reservoir in Purok 3 which would be used to supply potable water to residents in purok. The spring in Purok 2 previously served as the main potable water source of the barangay before the development of the Sta. Cruz spring. This spring and its distribution system are still functional but only used for non-drinking purposes.
KauswaganBarangay Kauswagan is in the southern part of the municipality. It has five puroks, Purok Makiangayon, Mahigugmaon, Matinabangon, Malipayon, and Bagong Silang and Barangays Butong, Sta. Cruz, Poblacion, and Mejo bound it in the northeast, south, and west.   The barangay mainly has a hilly terrain generally underlain by the volcanic sequence of the Middle Miocene to Pleistocene Zamboanga Volcanic Complex. This rock unit overlies the sedimentary package of the Late Miocene to Pliocene Lumbog Formation exposed in a small area south of the barangay.   The barangay’s groundwater mainly flows through the interconnected fractures of the underlying volcanic sequence and the primary porosity of the sedimentary package.Barangay Kauswagan is within two river basins. Its western side is within the Sibuguey River Basin and its eastern side within the Lipacan River Basin. The barangay has two springs in Puroks Malipayon and Makiangayon, and a deep well in Purok Bagong Silang that supply potable water to all of the barangay’s puroks.   Both of the barangay’s springs were developed into gravity-driven Level 3 water distribution systems, with spring intake boxes, main water lines, storage tanks, and metered distribution lines. The Malipayon spring supplies potable water to residents in Purok Malipayon, and the Makiangayon spring supplies potable water to residents in Puroks Makiangayon and in Matinabangon.   The barangay’s deep well was developed in 2017. It is thirty and a half meters (30.5m) deep from the ground surface and installed with a submersible pump that extracts the water to an elevated storage tank. From there gravity conveys the water directly to consumers’ households.
PoblacionBarangay Poblacion is in the southernmost part of the municipality. It has sixteen puroks, Purok Laurel, Osmeña, Mabini, Magsaysay, Roxas, Estrada, Garcia I, Garcia II, Quezon, Lapu-Lapu, Silang, Marcos, Aquino, Rizal, Macapagal, and Quirino. Barangays Lobing, Mejo, and Kauswagan bound it in the west, northwest, and northeast.   The barangay mainly has a hilly terrain generally underlain by the volcanic sequence of the Middle Miocene to Pleistocene Zamboanga Volcanic Complex. This rock unit overlies the sedimentary package of the Late Miocene to Pliocene Lumbog Formation exposed in the southwestern and northeastern portions of the barangay.   The barangay’s groundwater mainly flows through the interconnected fractures of the underlying volcanic sequence and the primary porosity of the sedimentary package.  Like Barangay Kauswagan, Barangay Poblacion is also within two River Basins. Its western part is within the Sibuguey River Basin and its eastern side is in the Lipacan River Basin. The barangay has eight wells that supply water to most of its puroks through Level 3 water distribution systems. Four of these wells are barangay-managed and the other four are LGU-managed.   Two of the four barangay-managed wells are in Purok Quirino, one is in Purok Aquino, and the other is in Purok Rizal. Quirino well 1 is a drilled well located along the national highway. It has a submersible pump and a storage tank and supplies non-potable water to residents in Puroks Quirino and Macapagal. The water from this well is not used for drinking as it is slightly murky. Quirino well 2 was developed in December 2020. This shallow well is 10.4 meters deep with a static water level of 3.23 meters from the ground surface. It yields clear odorless water that will be distributed to households in Puroks Quirino and Macapagan once its elevated storage tank is completely repaired.   The Aquino well is another shallow well that supplies water to residents in Puroks Aquino and Quezon. This well is 12.9 meters deep with a static water level at eight meters from the ground surface. A two horsepower submersible pumps extracts a slightly murky, non-potable water from this well.   The last among the barangay-managed wells is the Rizal well. It is twenty-five and a half meters deep and supplies non-potable water to residents in the same purok. Like the Aquino well, water from this well is also slightly murky and it dries up during prolonged dry seasons.   Two of the LGU-managed wells are in Purok Mabini, one is in Purok Laurel, and the other in Purok Roxas. The Mabini wells, or the DPWH and Bagsakan wells, are thirty and a half meters (30.5) and forty-six meters (46m) deep, respectively. Both wells, along with the forty-five meter (45m) deep Laurel well supply water to a reservoir in the Diplahan Public Market which serves residents in Puroks Osmeña, Mabini, Laurel, and Magsaysay. The Roxas well, on the other hand, is thirty and a half meters (30.5m) deep and supplies water to households in Puroks Roxas, Magsaysay, and Estrada.   The residents in Puroks Garcia, Garcia I, and Silang mostly have individual wells as sources of non-potable water.
ButongBarangay Butong is the southeasternmost barangay of the municipality. It has four puroks, Purok, Sambuko, Ilumba, Pag-asa, and Pagusara and Barangays Sta. Cruz and Kauswagan bound it in the northwest and southwest.   The barangay mainly has a hilly terrain generally underlain by the volcanic sequence of the Middle Miocene to Pleistocene Zamboanga Volcanic Complex. The plutonic igneous rocks of the Late Miocene to Pliocene Midsalip Diorite Complex, composed of quartz diorite and monzonite, and hornblende diorite, are also exposed in the southeastern part of the barangay.   The barangay’s groundwater mainly flows through the regolith and adequate interconnected fractures of the underlying volcanic sequence and plutonic rocks.Unlike all of the municipality’s other barangays, Barangay Butong is entirely within the recharge area of the Lipacan River Basin. The barangay has two springs in Purok Bagong Silang and a drilled well in Purok Pag-asa that supply water to all of the barangay’s Puroks.   One of the springs in Purok Bagong Silang supplies potable water to residents in Puroks Sambuko and Ilumba.  It has an intake box where water lines to a common fetching site near the barangay hall, and private, unmetered water lines are attached. This spring yields clear odorless water at a discharge rate of 0.54 liters per second. The other spring in Purok Bagong Silang also has unmetered water lines to households in the same purok.   The barangay deep well was developed in 2018. It is twenty-four meters (24m) deep and was able to intercept the groundwater at twenty-one meters (21m) from the ground surface. This well supplies potable water to residents in Puroks Pag-asa and Pagusara through a Level 3 water distribution system.  

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