Initial Report on the Geologic Quadrangle Mapping for Tupilac Peak Quadrangle


The Mines and Geoscience Bureau Regional Office IX (MGB-IX) conducted systematic geological mapping in the Tupilac Peak Quadrangle (Sheet No. 3443-II) in Zamboanga Peninsula is part of the 2020 Quadrangle Geological Mapping Project. The purpose of the mapping program is to produce a 1:50,000 scale quadrangle map in Region IX which one of the least mapped areas in Mindanao. Four (4) quadrangles are targeted for the year 2021 and the continuation of the remaining portions of the Tupilac Peak Quadrangle; all of which have been unmapped. The Tupilac Peak Quadrangle is located in the west-central portion of the Zamboanga Peninsula and immediately adjacent to the Ipil Quadrangle on the east. It covers small portions of the Municipalities of Siocon and Baliguian in Zamboanga del Norte and a large portion of the Municipalities of Titay and Roseller T. Lim in Zamboanga Sibugay.

Field activities consisted of an examination of rock exposures along with accessible tracks and in coastal areas, physical and megascopic description of outcrops and rock samples, sampling of representative rock units and favorable units that contain fossils, structural feature measurements of prevalent deformation and sedimentary structures, and photo documentation. The mapping utilized a 1:50,000 topographic base map of NAMRIA furnished through their website. The locations were obtained using the Global Positioning System (Garmin GPSMAP 64s), while the data gathered were plotted on a 1:10,000 topographic map generated from the Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) 2015 of NAMRIA.

The output will be a technical report and GIS-based geologic maps which are expected to be extremely useful for many practical applications such as in mineral exploration, groundwater resource and vulnerability assessment, geohazard mapping, solid waste disposal site selection, land use planning, and other applications.

The study area is located in the Zamboanga Peninsula which lies roughly at the southern part of the Philippine Archipelago chiefly in the island of Mindanao on the western segment. It lies between Moro Gulf on the south and the Sulu Sea on the north. Along the coast of the peninsula are lavish bays and islands with varying extents. It is connected to the rest of Mainland Mindanao through an isthmus situated between Pagadian Bay and Panguil Bay. The peninsula falls under the jurisdiction of Western Mindanao (Region IX) consisting of three provinces (Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga Sibugay and Zamboanga del Sur), and the boundary between the peninsula and mainland is marked by the border between the provinces of Zamboanga del Sur and Lanao del Norte.

Tupilac Peak Quadrangle covers the latitude N7° 40’ 0” to 7° 50’ 0”, and longitude E122° 15’ 0” to 122° 30’ 0” and is approximately centered in the Municipality of Roseller T. Lim in Zamboanga Sibugay. From Zamboanga International Airport, the target municipalities covered by Tupilac Peak Quadrangle are easily accessible via an all-weathered national road which serves as the main access throughout the entire peninsula. Far-flung areas can be accessed using a motorbike (locally known as habal-habal).

Figure 1. Location map of the study area indicated by the black box.


The Philippine archipelago is a complex system of colliding terranes, subduction zones involving continental crusts, island arcs and oceanic crusts, which have been tectonically juxtaposed by strike-slip displacement (Hamilton, 1979; Cardwell et al., 1980, Yumul et al., 2001). A large part of the archipelago referred to as the Philippine Mobile Belt is under a tectonically active regime characterized by volcanism and seismicity. It comprises the central NNW-SSE lengthwise section of the archipelago, which is flanked on both sides by subduction zones (Gervasio, 1971; Rangin, 1991). Diagonally cutting through its NNW-SSE length runs the left-lateral strike-slip fault called the Philippine Fault. Its east side is bordered by the Philippine Trench, wherein the west-verging subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate occurs. Its western flank is defined by the Manila-Negros-Cotabato Trench system, along which the South China Sea, Sulu Sea and the Celebes Sea undergo east-verging subduction. The crustal fragments west of the Philippine Mobile Belt are generally of continental character with affinity to the mainland Asia-Sundaland plates.

Figure 2. Tectonic Map of the Philippines showing the extent of Philippine Fault, the west-verging Philippine Trench in the east, and the generally east-verging trench systems in the west. (Besana et al., 2005)

The Zamboanga Peninsula, representing the 250-km long narrow west-southwest extension of western Mindanao Island. It is bordered along the NW side by the Sulu Trench (Reference), along the southern side by the Celebes Trench (Hall, 2002). The eastern section of the Peninsula is cut by a left-lateral NW-SE trending strike-slip fault called the Sindangan-Cotabato Fault (references). In the central section of the Peninsula runs the NE-SW trending Titay Fault which is of primary interest in this current work. Most of the previous studies (references) agree that the Zamboanga Peninsula is almost entirely characterized by continental affinity which contrasts with the bigger portion of Mindanao Island like a lateral outline. Its width ranges from 100 meters to more than 1 kilometer and lengths of 1 to 5 kilometers. Its outcrops normally exhibit a chaotic array of different components but structurally align with the NW-SE regional trend. These commonly occur along topographic lineaments, linear river channels, lithologic boundaries of fault structures. These were probably formed during the major tectonic collision of the Palawan- Zamboanga plate with the Philippine Mobile Belt during the Middle to Late Miocene, thus, its age.


Stratigraphic Units in the Tupilac Peak Quadrangle

Tungawan Metamorphics

The metamorphic rocks widely occurring in the western section of the Zamboanga Peninsula was named as Tungawan Schist by Santos-Yñigo (1953). This unit incorporates other metamorphic rocks such as schist, marble, quartzite, gneiss, slate and phyllite. The occurrence and spatial relationships of these different metamorphic rocks are yet to be determined as their respective lithologic contacts have not been encountered. This unit was named after its exposure in the coast of Tungawan, but its occurrence stretches north to coastal Siocon-Baliguian area, as far northeast as Labason-Liloy area and as far southwest as Pasonanca (Zamboanga City). In Querubin and others (1999) the metamorphic rock complex consisting of schist and amphibolites in the Mt. Dansalan area (Labason) was named as Dansalan Metamorphics. It serves as the basement rock of the Zamboanga Peninsula and regarded as of Cretaceous age.

Polanco Ophiolite

A contiguous occurrence of rock bodies that comprise an ophiolitic sequence occurs in the central section of the Zamboanga Peninsula. These include the peridotite/ serpentinized peridotite that stretches from Ipil (northern), Titay, Tampilisan to Liloy. Extensive exposures of the peridotite in Titay and Tampilisan show pervasive shearing as well as serpentinization as exposed in quarry sites. Their highly fractured texture makes them good source for aggregate quarry. This was previously labeled by Querubin et al (1999) as ZNAC Ultramafics for its road exposures around the Zamboanga del Norte Agricultural College. Exposures of gabbro and layered gabbros have been encountered in the southern portion of Tampilisan Municipality. The sheeted dike complex appears in the northern portion of Tampilisan.  Based on the Ocean Plate Stratigraphy (OPS) hypothesis that the overriding sedimentary suites of the East Zamboanga Block has the same ophiolite unit from Aurora-Tukuran area to Ipil-Titay-Tampilisan-Liloy area, then the previously described Polanco Ophiolite Complex should extend from the east end of the Zamboanga Peninsula up to the Titay Fault area.

Salug Chert

This unit refers to the well-bedded chert sequence distributed as patches of exposures in the central to northern portions of Central Zamboanga Peninsula. It occurs in Brgy Balakan (Salug), Brgy Overview (Liloy), and in Brgys New Dapitan, Malila T and Tiningaan (Tampilisan). It is generally red-colored thinly bedded. Many of its occurrences coincide with nearby ultramafics such as in New Dapitan and Overview, implying a conformable stratigraphic relationship between the chert and the ophiolitic materials. In other exposures such as New Dapitan and Tiningaan, the chert sequence occurs together with deep-marine clastic deposit; although their stratigraphic relation is not clearly shown, it is assumed that the pelagic deposit is conformably overlain by a turbidite sequence. It was decided to recognize it as a separate unit instead of being a mere carapace of an oceanic crust because it serves as the oldest sedimentary unit in the region. It is assigned an Eocene Age based on its stratigraphic relations with the underlying Polanco Ophiolite and the overlying Zamboanga Formation. Its best exposure is found along the Salug River in Brgy Pacuhan, Salug where it is estimated to have a thickness of 100 meters.

Zamboanga Formation

The name Zamboanga Formation as originally proposed by Antonio (1972) consists of three members namely, the Metavolcanic member, the Metasedimentary member and the Limestone member. In this study, only the Metasedimentary member is considered, described by Antonio (1972) as consisting primarily of an interbedded sequence of thin- to medium-bedded sandstone and mudstone, including argillite, with thin lenses of the conglomerate. In this study, this clastic sedimentary sequence is regarded as a turbidite deposit representing the proximal to the distal section of a turbidite sequence, which consists of a massive conglomerate, interbedded conglomerate, quartz-rich sandstone and shale. Although Querubin et al (1999) renamed this unit as Camanga Sediments, the name Zamboanga Formation is again re-adopted for its significant role being the among the widest distribution and the earliest rock formation formed under submarine environment. It was earlier assigned under Early Miocene age by Antonio (1972), but based on nannofossils, giving late Late Oligocene age, its age range is adjusted earlier to Oligocene to Early Miocene.

Namnama Formation

This newly proposed lithologic unit refers to the sedimentary sequence along Highway 79 in Barangay Namnama, Titay that is characterized by a repetitive sequence of well-bedded laminated mudstone and sedimentary breccia. The mudstone layers are composed of laminated beds with high organic contents and range in thickness from 10 cm to 3 meters. The mudstone intervals interlayer with sedimentary breccia with bed thicknesses ranging from 30 cm and 4 meters. The sequence appears to exhibit alternating deposition of mudstone layers with the sedimentary breccia. Since the area of deposition is along the Titay Fault, the sedimentary breccia reflects periods of tectonic movements while the laminated mudstone reflects the quiet intervals. This sequence is considered a sagpond deposit and is assumed to be the characteristic feature of the rock layers making up the Titay Valley. This unit is first proposed in this work and named herein as the Namnama Formation for its exposure and type locality in Brgy Namnama, Titay.

Zamboanga Volcanic Complex 

The Zamboanga Volcanic Complex covers a vast portion of most of the central to the eastern Zamboanga Peninsula. This unit is variably represented by volcaniclastics, volcanic breccia/ agglomerate, andesite, basalt, dacite and pyroclastic rocks. It is distributed around Ipil, Kabasalan, Alicia, Malangas, Buug, Bayog, Lakewood, Kumalarang, Margosatubig, Tigbao, Dinas, Dumalinao, Pagadian and Midsalip. Many of which still have remnant volcanic edifices although these are already extinct volcanic structures. These Pliocene – Pleistocene volcanic rocks were named Zamboanga Volcanics by Antonio (1972), which include basalt-andesite flows and associated pyroclastic rocks, hornblende andesite plugs, and dacitic plugs and cinder cones.  

Radiometric K-Ar dating of samples of volcanic flows from east-central Zamboanga shows that the products of recent arc volcanism in the area range from 2.58 Ma to 0.41 Ma (Sajona and others, 1997). Tabular andesitic flows sampled at Pagadian gave ages of 2.58 Ma and 1.91 Ma; a sample from Buug gave an age of 1.71 Ma; basaltic andesite and basalt at Mt. Kaladis were dated 1.21 Ma and 1.08 Ma, respectively. Radiometric K-Ar dating of dacites from Lakewood gave ages of 0.97 Ma and 0.82 Ma. Cinder cones and lava domes overlying Middle Miocene and Late Miocene sediments in east-central Zamboanga and the Plio-Pleistocene basalts on the northernmost outcrops are dated 1.0 – 0.7 Ma. The youngest K-Ar age (0.4 ± 0.05 Ma) is that of a basaltic andesite flow collected northwest of Ipil. The Zamboanga Volcanic Complex may be correlated to the Mt. Maria Volcanics in the Zamboanga Peninsula. In Zamboanga Sibugay, it usually lies on top of the Early to Middle Miocene limestone stratigraphic unit, which is the Sibuguey Formation.

Figure 3. Stratigraphic column for the Central Zamboanga Peninsula section showing previous works (GOP, 2012) and the modified stratigraphy of this work.
Figure 5. Relief map showing the terrain of the study area.
Figure 5. Plotting of Observation (Station) points in the Tupilac Peak Quadrangle.


The Tupilac Peak Quadrangle covers minor portions of the municipalities of Siocon and Baliguian, Province of Zamboanga del Norte and a large portion of Roseller T. Lim and Titay, Province of Zamboanga Sibugay. The succeeding discussion focuses on selected outcrops starting with the metamorphic rock, ultramafic rock, followed by the chert sequence, lacustrine deposit and volcanic sequence. Numbered station points are used as location references, which are properly indicated in the location map (Figure 5).

Lithologic Exposures

Tungauan Metamorphics

The metamorphic rockcaps a vast portion of the northern portion of the Western Zamboanga Peninsula unifies the metamorphic rocks widely occurring in the western section of the Zamboanga Peninsula. This name comes from Tungauan Schist of Santos-Yñigo (1953). It was modified to Tungauan Metamorphics due to its multiple types of rock such as schist, marble, quartzite, gneiss, slate and phyllite, making the “Schist” rather inappropriate. The boundaries among these different metamorphic rocks are also difficult to delineate thus treated as one unit, adopting the name Tungauan Metamorphics instead of Tungauan Schist.

Barangay Tabayo, Siocon

Along the back road in Sitio Canatuan at Station #151 (N7° 43’ 51.6”; E122° 16’ 25.4”) appears a metamorphic rock identified as mica-talc-chlorite schist. The foliation generally coincides with the dipping trend at NS 35°E, this exposure is moderately weathered having intermittent patches of clays along with talc and chlorite. Quartzite lenses usually occur aligned with the foliation fabric, and occasionally as fracture fills which cut across the foliation.

Photo [1-4]. A slightly weathered exposure of the foliated talc-chlorite schist along the back road going to Sitio Canatuan in Barangay Tabayo, Siocon at Station #151 N7° 43’ 51.6”; E122° 16’ 25.4”).

A mineralized exposure of a besshi-type volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit hosted in a metamorphic rock located in Sitio Canatuan. At Station #155 (N7° 43’ 55.1”; E122° 16’ 37.1”) the deposit is set into an assemblage of quartz, sericite, chlorite, mica and is underlain by massive sulfides and iron-oxide gossan containing Au and Ag. The bed strata are oriented at EW 35 N.

Photo [5-8]. A highly oxidized iron-oxide gossan capping the massive pyrite deposit observed in the open-pit of the Canatuan Mine in Barangay Tabayo, Siocon at Station #155 (N7° 43’ 55.1”; E122° 16’ 37.1”).

Barangay Pisawak, Baliguian

Along the road going to the barangay, a mineralized exposure of a highly oxidized quartz-pyrite schist is observed. Station #191 (N7° 43’ 55.1”; E122° 16’ 37.1”) the pyrite appears to be disseminated in the schist outcrop thus forming acidic oxidization of sulfide minerals forming goethite stains. The foliation is generally planar that is oriented at NS 35°E.

Photo [9-12]. A highly oxidized pyrite-quartz schist was observed along a slope-cut in Barangay Pisawak, Baliguian at Station #191 (N7° 43’ 55.1”; E122° 16’ 37.1”).

Ultramafics Exposures (Polanco Ophiolite & Siocon Ultramafic)

The Polanco Ophiolite consists of residual peridotites, cumulate peridotites and gabbro, sheeted dike complex and basalts. In the geologic mapping program for the past two years covering the quadrangles of Liloy, Titay and Ipil, the ophiolite exposures encountered are those along the Ipil, Titay, Tampilisan, Godod and Salug which have been traversed by the northeast-southwest trending Titay Fault. The Siocon Ultramafics is the basement for the west zamboanga block on which the Tungauan Metamorphics overlie and thrusted to the east zamboanga block. In the Tupilac Peak Quadrangle, the ophiolite exposures are limited to peridotite and gabbro exposures in Barangays Pisawak and Kilalaban (Baliguian) and San Antonio (Titay).

Barangay Kilalaban, Baliguian

A roadcut exposure in the mountainous section of Baliguian showing a highly sheared partly weathered ultramafic rock (Siocon Ultramafics). At Station #70 (N7° 45’ 22.5”; E122° 14’ 52.0”) the greenish-black peridotite rock appears to be serpentinized mark by a high presence of serpentine minerals. The rock is highly fractured with a fault structure trending at N30E 65°SE, with slickenside lineations trending at the E-W direction.

Photo [13-16]. A highly brecciated ultramafic exposure along the newly cleared road going to Siocon proper in Barangay Kilalalban, Baliguian at Station #70 (N7° 45’ 22.5”; E122° 14’ 52.0”).

Barangay San Antonio, Titay

A quarry exposure in the southern portion of the barangay showing a highly brecciated gabbro and peridotite outcrop (Polanco Ophiolite). Station #173 (N7° 48’ 33.4”; E122° 28’ 27.8”) the greenish-black peridotite is highly serpentinized observed by the presence of the fibrous and resinous minerals. Fracture zones are filled with magnesite materials ranging in thickness from 1 to 5 cm. Laterite materials on top of the ultramafics have been poorly developed.

Photo [17-20]. A highly brecciated ultramafic exposure along a coast in Barangay Dona Josefa, Sindangan at Station #173 (N7° 48’ 33.4”; E122° 28’ 27.8”).

Another quarry area in the barangay at Station #185 (N7° 49’ 21.2”; E122° 29’ 41.1”) exposes sheared ultramafic body. The occurrence of this ultramafic body has significantly decreased in the southeast boundary due to the presence of a younger volcanic system in the area. This exposure is highly sheared with fracture spaces filled with magnesite. Some portions have patches of oxidation, which may be part of a fault zone.

Photo [21-24]. Exposures of ultramafic rocks in Barangay San Antonio, Titay at Station #185 (N7° 49’ 21.2”; E122° 29’ 41.1”).

Chert Exposures (Salug Chert)

The occurrence of chert in the Zamboanga Peninsula is first reported in this current quadrangle geologic mapping campaign. The chert exposures in the Titay Municipality within the Tupilac Peak Quadrangle appear as clustered blocks and lenses in Barangay San Antonio and Dalangin (Titay).

Barangay Antonio, Titay

Along the road going to barangay San Isidro, exposures of reddish blocks of ferruginous cherts are noted in the ultramafic rock bodies. At Station #171 (N7° 49’ 7.9”; E122° 28’ 54.8”) chert subcrops appear protruding from the ground in scattered distribution and are partly recrystallized due to the presence of quartz stringers. Finer radiolarian fossils are still well-preserved in the chert blocks. Since chert in the area is regarded as directly overlying the Polanco Ophiolite, and below the Zamboanga Formation, its appearance in the area is regarded as a window of the lower section of its stratigraphy in this particular area.

Photo [25-26]. Subcrops of ferruginous chert were observed in Barangay San Antonio, Titay at Station #171 (N7° 49’ 7.9”; E122° 28’ 54.8”).

Mudstone-Sedimentary breccia Interbed (Namnama Formation)

This mudstone-breccia sequence is conspicuously intruded by a dacitic sill occurring between the shale beds. The intrusion exhibits chilled margins toward its contact with the host rock. Since the area of deposition is along the Titay Fault, the sedimentary breccia reflects periods of tectonic movements while the laminated mudstone reflects the quiet intervals. Exposures in the Tupilac Peak Quadrangle are widely observed in Barangay Candiz (Siocon) and San Fernandino (Roseller T. Lim).

Barangay Candiz, Siocon

A roadcut exposure showing an interbedded mudstone-shale-sandstone sequence of a lacustrine deposit. Station #83 (N7° 44’ 1.8”; E122° 19’ 7.4”) the sequence is composed of laminated to thinly bedded weakly indurated black organic-rich mudstone, fissile gray shale and medium-grained sandstone. The outcrop is intruded by a gray porphyritic andesite sill forming a narrow baked zone producing a low-grade lignitic coal ply. The bed is oriented at N50W 35°SW with fractures filled with oxide minerals.

Photo [27-30]. Exposure of a lacustrine deposit composed of mudstone-sandstone sequence in Barangay Candiz, Siocon at Station #83 (N7° 44’ 1.8”; E122° 19’ 7.4”).

Another fresh roadcut exposure showing an interbedded mudstone-shale-sandstone sequence of a lacustrine deposit near the upstream segment of Tupilac River. Station #116 (N7° 43’ 7.0”; E122° 18’ 28.2”) the sequence is composed of laminated to thinly bedded weakly indurated black organic-rich mudstone, fissile gray shale and medium-grained sandstone. Several structures are noted in the outcrop forming a series of normal faults (horst and graben) system with a reading of N60E 30-70°SE. The bed is oriented at N50E 40°NW with fractures filled with oxide minerals.

Photo [31-34]. Exposure of laminated to thinly bedded organic-rich mudstone in Barangay Candiz, Siocon at Station #116 (N7° 43’ 7.0”; E122° 18’ 28.2”).

Barangay San Fernandino, Roseller T. Lim

Along the western section of the barangay going to siocon diversion road, a roadcut exposes an interbedded mudstone-shale-sandstone sequence. Station #120 (N7° 44’ 59.8”; E122° 21’ 53.1”) the sequence is composed of laminated to thinly bedded weakly indurated black organic-rich mudstone, fissile fine-grained gray shale and medium to coarse-grained sandstone intruded by 3-meter thick porphyritic andesite sill that is highly weathered marked by a chilled margin between the lacustrine deposit producing a low-grade lignitic coal ply. The bed is oriented at N50E 40°SE with fractures filled with oxide and sulfide minerals.

Photo [35-38]. Exposure of laminated to thinly bedded organic-rich mudstone in Barangay San Fernandino, Roseller T. Lim at Station #120 (N7° 44’ 59.8”; E122° 21’ 53.1”).

Volcanic Sequence (Zamboanga Volcanic Complex)

The Zamboanga Volcanic Complex is the widely distributed volcanic sequence consisting of pyroclastic materials, volcanic breccias, agglomerates, volcaniclastics, lava flows, etc… These volcanic materials are products of Early Miocene to Pleistocene volcanism in the Zamboanga Peninsula. Since this volcanism generated a considerably large volume of volcanic materials distributed widely, most of the older rock formations have been covered. In the Quadrangle this unit has widely covered in the south-eastern portion of the Tupilac Peak Quadrangle.

Barangay San Isidro, Tungawan

A quarry exposure of a volcanic edifice on the southern flank of Mt. Tupilac showing a volcanic sequence. Station #97 (N7° 40’ 33.3”; E122° 20’ 56.6”) appears a bedded volcaniclastics and dark color basaltic flow which appears to show features of columnar basalt as viewed from the top, although it is much thinner than the usual basalt flow deposits with a columnar structure. It appears to be oriented at N50°W dipping 60°NE.

Photo [39-42]. Exposure of a moderately jointed basalt flow and bedded volcaniclastics in Barangay San Isidro, Tungawan at Station #97 (N7° 40’ 33.3”; E122° 20’ 56.6”).

Barangay New Sagay, Roseller T. Lim

A mountain quarry exposure of a volcanic sequence appearing along the Roseller T. Lim-Siocon road showing a tight joint sets, partly silicified to chloritized coarse-grained gray volcaniclastics and bluish-gray andesite flows oriented N10W dipping 40°NE. Station #242 (N7° 40’ 50.2”; E122° 26’ 9.5”) the bedded sequence can be recognized by its color variation from bluish-gray to light gray to brown in the upper section. Dominant joint sets are oriented at N70E 80°NW and N20W 55°SW which are planar to perpendicular to the bedding plane. The presence of copper stains in the outcrop occurs along fracture planes filled with disseminated sulfide minerals (pyrite-chalcopyrite) in the quartz vein material.

Photo [33-36]. Mountain quarry exposure of a highly jointed volcanic sequence composed of andesite flow and volcaniclastics in Barangay New Sagay, Roseller T. Lim at Station #242 (N7° 40’ 50.2”; E122° 26’ 9.5”).

Barangay Taruc, Roseller T. Lim

Clustered volcanic peaks are observed in the northern and western part of the municipality which reflects the abundance of volcanic material in the area that widely covered the older rock formations. Station #238 (N7° 42’ 2.6”; E122° 25’ 51.3”) the andesite flow exhibits a dark gray color set in a partly silicified porphyritic groundmass. The systematic joints are oriented at NS 30°E, N40W 80°NE and N40E 90°.

Photo [37-40]. Exposure of moderately jointed porphyritic andesite flow observed in Barangay Taruc, Roseller T. Lim at Station #238 (N7° 42’ 2.6”; E122° 25’ 51.3”).

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